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论音位系统和注音系统:以汉语为例

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On Phonetic and Phonetic Systems: Taking Chinese as an Example

摘要: 随着语音学技术和研究方法的进步,音位学从结构主义的方法论逐渐转向认知科学的方法论,初步形成了认知音位学。从认知音位学的角度,建立音位首先需要有语音意识,语音意识通常定义为:母语者能感知到的不区别意义的语音单位。语音意识分为自然产生的语音意识和非自然产生的语音意识两种。基于这些基本概念,本文讨论了汉语不同历史时期的音位系统:1)音节音位系统直音;2)声韵音位系统反切;3)类声韵调音位系统《广韵》;4、类声韵调音位系统注音符号;5)音素音位系统汉语拼音方案。研究发现:汉语的音位系统逐渐从基于自然语音意识的音位系统转变为基于非自然语音意识的音位系统。从语音单位上看,也从音节逐步转变为音素。基于这些研究和发现,本文对音位系统和注音系统进行了明确的定义,并阐述了两者之间的区别。根据音位系统和注音系统的定义,我们发现在汉藏语的田野调查和音位构建的研究中,大部分建立的是注音系统而非音位系统。

Abstract: With the progress of phonetics technology and research methods, phonemics has gradually developed from the methodology of structuralism to the methodology of cognitive science, and gradually established the cognitive phonemics. From the perspective of cognitive phonemics, phonetic awareness is the first step in establishing phonemes. Phonemic awareness is usually defined as the phonetic units that can be perceived by native speakers without discriminating meanings. Phonetic awareness can be divided into natural phonetic awareness and unnatural phonetic awareness. Based on these basic concepts, this paper discusses the phonemic system of Chinese in different historical periods: 1) Syllabic phoneme system Zhiyin; 2) phonemic system of initials and finals Fanqie; 3) Quasi-phonemic system of initials, rhymes and tones Guang Yun; 4) Quasi-phonemic system of initials, rhymes and tones Zhuyin Fuhao; 5) Phonemic system of segments Hanyu Pinyin. The study found that the phonemic system of Chinese gradually changed from the phonemic system based on natural phonetic awareness to the phonemic system based on unnatural phonetic awareness. From the point of view of phonetic units, it also gradually changes from syllables to segments. Based on these studies and findings, this paper gives a clear definition of phonemic system and phonetic notation system, and expounds the difference between them. According to the definitions of phonemic system and phonetic notation system, it is found that most of the field investigations and studies on phonemic construction of Chinese-Tibetan languages have established phonetic notation system rather than phonemic system.

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[V1] 2023-04-28 09:37:26 ChinaXiv:202304.01052V1 下载全文
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